ICE 2003,  Espoo, Finland

Proceedings of the ICE 2003, the 9th International Conference on Concurrent Enterprising, Espoo, Finland, 2003-06-16/18, contains 67 papers structured in 8 sections covering the following subjects: CE Methods and Tools, Knowledge Management, Virtual Organisations, Innovation and Project Management, B2B Networks, Industrial Cases and Training and Education. In the following, highlights of selected papers are presented following the sequence in the proceedings:

CE Methods and Tools: research results on interactive requirements acquisition based on combining constrain processing techniques and machine learning and using user-specified examples are reported. Applicability is demonstrated using a printed circuit board example, (Sulivan et al). Integration of Quality Function Deployment (QFD), Value Engineering (VE) and Design for Manufacture and Assembly (DFMA) will improve product design. The concept has been tested in 5 case studies employing different combinations of the three tools (Mendoza et al). An automotive supplier strategy for a new product development and its global introduction as well as the adopted methods and procedures are presented (Atkinson, Al-Ashaab). A framework for conceptualising the context of design decisions in trade-off situations has been developed. This framework is based on a case study with a car manufacturer covering designers, supervisors and mangers that revealed that trade-off decisions override the company guidelines for decision making (Belecheanu et al). System engineering as a process oriented approach has been deployed in car development for co-ordination of concurrent engineering tasks. The system engineering process model (ISO 15288) introduces four process categories: enterprise, project, technical and agreement processes leading to two main co-ordination categories: internal to the product development project (project processes) and with the production system development (technical processes) (Lardeur et al). A framework for product development effectiveness in services and goods is proposed, which extends the composite model of concurrent engineering effectiveness (Hull). Following an extensive analysis the original composite model of concurrent engineering effectiveness is extended itself to include a strategy process in addition to the three original constructs organisation, process and tools/technology (Collins, Hull).

Knowledge Management (KM): The paper describes first results on product knowledge management for the extended enterprise, which is developed by the European funded project Product Integrated Knowledge Management for the extended Enterprise - PRIME. The key objects of the PRIME methodology are the extended enterprise, its product and process specification and its knowledge. These objects are specified by data models of Product support information, Knowledge engineering Process, Extended enterprise organisation model  (Düsing et al). The need for support of the complete knowledge and product life cycle is emphasised and results from the Germany funded project KnowWork are presented (Denkma, Apitz).. A knowledge logistics framework for enterprise application integration is proposed that uses an KSNet-(Knowledge Source Network) approach. The nodes of the KSNet represent elements of e-business like end users/customers, experts, repositories, documents, and information/knowledge management tools. The approach is demonstrated using as examples an automotive supply chain and a portable hospital (Smirnow et al). Similarly a system architecture is proposed that combines product life cycle and KM technologies. The architecture consists of a three layer functionality, which provide: repository and integration components (lowest level, Basic knowledge management (middle layer), User applications (upper layer). Product data are linked to KM tools, which are based on semantic network knowledge representation (Hahn). Results from the Germany funded project Service Provider for Knowledge Networks report on integration of new ICT-driven organisational concepts with KM social construction of knowledge in extended organisations are reviewed using the European funded project Web Enabled Information Services for Engineering - WISE as an example (Meriluoto). A conceptual model is presented, which captures intra- and inter-organisational knowledge interactions in the telecommunication industry. Focus is on knowledge sharing in the course of product developments (Gupta et al). An information ontology for knowledge asset trading is developed in the European funded project Intelligent Knowledge Asset Sharing and Trading - INKASS to be used as the data structure specification in the INKASS knowledge trading platform (Abecker et al). A modelling approach for knowledge intensive processes is presented that supports not only information management, but access to knowledge as well. The Knowledge Modeller Declaration language - KDML is used in an example (Gronau). To establish and develop knowledge communities the Airbus company has deployed the Engineering Book of Knowledge - EboK, which consists of a internet-based tool and a community building process. The tool supports individual community knowledge taxonomy (structure and terminology), identification of roles and responsibilities and author/reviewer principles assuring contents quality (Langenberg). Technology and methods for support of sharing and reuse of modelling and simulation of design knowledge has been developed in the European funded project Clockwork and is implemented in the Clockwork Knowledge Management Tool – CKMT. The tool supports the four-world modelling and simulation structure, which allows representation of the real, conceptual ideal and simulated world. The tool has been employed in two industrial case studies (Mulholland et al). New KM concepts to be used in turbulent environment are discussed in 2 papers: looking at complex adaptive systems (Wunram et al) and an evaluation of classical research approaches and their shortcommings (Wolf et al). The European funded project Delivery of Context-Sensitive Organisational Knowledge – DÉCOR has developed and tested a solution for business-process oriented KM. The results from two case studies are reported (Abecker et al). A tool that allows non-IT users to create and use complex data structures has been developed in the European funded project Collaborative working within the Aeronautic Supply Chain - CASH. Results from a case study are reported (Marchiori et al). An Overview on methods for diagnosis and regulation of Competencies of SME-type multi-enterprise systems are provided by the French funded project Groupements d’Enterprise Coopérantes: Potentialités, Moyens, Evolutions – GRECOPME. Results include competency maps, potentials and identification of needs for further developments for the co-operative enterprise (Boucher)

Virtual Organisations – Modelling:A new approach of extended enterprise modelling includes modelling of the negotiation process employing fractals, game theory and neural network structures (Vasiliu, Browne). Modelling and control of supplier networks in an e-logistics environment are analysed for different business environments and strategies for the identification of critical success factors are provided. Examples are from the food industry, project business and IT wholesale (Laurikkala et al). The methodology of adaptive complex systems (CAS) is used for the analysis and design of virtual enterprises. (Dumitrache et al). Classification and distinguishing popular enterprise concepts with the goal to develop a three dimensional model to be implemented in a tool for creating different network models. The three dimensions identified in the paper are degree of a) organisational knowledge/learning b) customisation and c) collaboration/virtuallity (Ellmann, Eschenbächer).

Virtual Organisations – Management: A typology of virtual enterprises is derived from 10 case studies and their organisational and managerial features are determined. The identified types are: virtual contractor, virtual allocation networks and virtual support network. Organisational and management tools for communication, co-ordination and co-operation are employed. Establishing mutual trust as well as regulatory contracts are still the main issues in the VE management (Hausner et al). Research on virtual enterprises within the CE domain is reviewed. Three types of VE topologies: 1) process oriented, 2) main contractor, 3) project oriented. Conclusions are focus is shifting from methodologies and infrastructures towards management aspects like KM organisational design and legal aspects (Katzy, Löh). Tool management is seen as a key integration for virtual organisations and a tool registration and management services kernel is developed in the European funded project E-Colleg (Witczynski et al). The Europena funded project ALIVE has developed a set of legal templates to enable set-up and management of VEs. These have been validated in a number of industry workshops and specific training sessions (Weitzenboeck et al).

Innovation and Project Management: A series of 40 inventive strategies following from the study of over 2 million of win-win solutions have been analysed for their applicability to CE. Potential use of the strategies id demonstrated by an exemplary problem (Mann). The paper shows the possibility to assist the steering of innovation product processes taking into account collective risks and economics (Sechi, Sönen). The causes of failures in global R&D projects are identified with focus on collaboration, KM and virtual team environment. One of the main limiting factors is the poor communication and knowledge sharing of the virtual team. A collaborative tool has bee developed in the Irish funded project eNableSME that is based on a five area framework: goals, actions, teams, results and community (Precup et al). The role of social capital in inter-organisational networks for product innovation is studied in two cases. Social capital is the sum of resources embedded in the social relationships possessed by a network unit and it has three highly interrelated dimensions: structural, relational and cognitive (Haahtela, et al). Project complexity is managed using an information model that focuses on the local objects and their structure and their interactions within the project and its environment (Marle, Lardeur). The creative factory model is extended to include design chain characteristics and factors in order to model innovation in a design chain (Passey et al).

 Technologies for B2B Networks: The results from four cases of incubating new VE networks are presented. Using the concept of action research during the four major phases of the network incubation: preparation, forming institutionalisation and pilot project. A key element the balanced approach of jointly pursuing a business opportunity and to build the network culture using a network coach as facilitator (Löh et al). A reference architecture for automated business process integration has been developed in the European project openXchange. The architecture is component based and identifies a meta process with four phases: modelling, profiling agreement and transaction. The architecture follows the ebXML and the openTRANS standards and has been implemented at various pilot sites (Hinderer et al). Collaborative business in manufacturing networks can be supported by web services. Following a discussion of the evolution of collaborative business and its components, the web service technologies is presented (Thoben et al). The European funded project Intelligent Networking of Dynamically Interrelated Actors – INDIA has developed a methodology and a supporting tool for collaborative supply chain management (Kühnle et al). The transfer of enterprises into the digital economy will be supported by the eTRANSFER system architecture consisting of a methodology and a set of tools for redesigning the enterprise operation (Markellos et al). The enterprise engineering in SME-type production networks is supported by a toolbox developed in the European funded project PRODCHAIN (Stich et al). A typology of knowledge sharing networks has identified five types of networks: Open Knowledge Source, Intra-Organisational Networks, Membership-based Networks, Knowledge Supply and Learning Networks (Apostolou et al). Requirements and concepts for a system integrating both the demand (planning) and the supply (fulfilment) process in the distributed environment of supply chains are described (Chang et al).

 Industrial Cases: Three case studies report results from applications in the aerospace industry: ISO 10303-AP233 interfaces in the systems engineering domain (Eckert, Johansson); Collaborative applications supporting distributed engineering (Rupp, Steiner); Technical, safety and security aspects in transformation of air transport to a concurrent enterprise (Kesseler). In addition, RETEC, a Spanish initiative on promotion of CE is described (Galan et al).

 Training and Education: A world-wide survey of over 300 master programs of manufacturing curricula is presented and a the structure of a framework for has been developed (Precup). The main features of a collaborative web-based environment are reported that offers distant training, documentation and consultancy services (Cristea et al).

For more information: F. Weber, K.S. Pawar, K-D Thoben, (Eds.), Enterprise Engineering in the Networked Economy, 542 pages, Published by University of Nottingham, ISBN 0 85358 119 3 and   

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